Andrew Revering
Osborne, KS October 9, 2001
Distance: 1400 Miles | Drive Time: 27 Hours

Monday night, the 8th I decided that I would go with Peggy Willenberg to Kansas. I took a couple hour nap, got up at 11 p.m. and did some forecasting until we left at 3 a.m.

Our target was Salina, Kansas. With a long drive ahead of us we discussed our plan to go to Salina as it would be the last chance for us to get data via a digital cell phone signal. But as we entered Kansas City around 9:30 a.m. we thought our chase territory would end up being to the NW of Salina.

Frontal boundaries, Day 1 Convective Outlook, and experimental tornado outlook.

Driving west on I-70 at about 11:45 a.m. we were stopped on the highway as they temporarily closed the road while a car fire was being put out. This set us back about a half our. Our goal was to be in Salina by 1 p.m., but it looked like we wouldn't get there quite that soon.

While driving west we encountered some of the most intense winds in central Kansas. Sustained winds at nearby reporting stations were at around 30 mph with gusts into the 40s. Keeping the vehicle on the road was a challenge. Straw was flying everywhere. A small hay field was building up on the Suburban's antennas.

Once we entered our base target of Salina at 1:35, we stopped to fill up on gas, got data and talked to Chris Gullikson on the phone. With all that we decided to head toward Stockton, KS where it was west of the sun/cloud line and east of the dryline. It seemed like a good central location to relocate.

On our way to Stockton at about 2:30 p.m., near the city of Lincoln, Chris gave us another call and informed us that a cumulus field had developed about 10 miles west of Hays, KS. So with that said, we dropped back down to I-70 and headed for Hays.

2 p.m. Winds & Dew Points

At 3:45 p.m. we arrived near the city of Victoria where we could see a cell going up. We exited at Victoria and went south in persuit. As we did Peggy noticed another cell further south-east of the initial developing cell. This one had a much more defined updraft tower and just looked to be the better option. Our goal was to head south and then east to get closer, and then follow the cell to the NE, which was it's mean motion. As we attempted to get closer, smaller storms had popped up all around us. Large rain drops and clouds started to obscure our visibility. Unfortunately we couldn't find a route east until we went as far as Loretta. This put the cell far ahead of us. Our first move was a bad one.

Heading back up to Victoria we could see a cell to our north that had a warning issued for it. Peggy didn't think we would ever catch these cells but didn't mention it until after the fact. After all, we drove all the way to Kansas, we were not about to give up so easily. We tailed the cell north to near the city of Emmeram, KS. The cluster of storms around us were not very defined, classic supercells. They were a bit mushy, and it was hard to find any wall clouds associated with anything. About this time Chris Gullikson gave us another call and told us that the cell was on the Ellis/Rooks county line, just south of Plainville, KS, moving NE at 40. Peggy and I planned a route to the NE to intercept the cell near the city of Covert in Osborne County.

About 5 p.m. time we started to see more structure, lowerings and whatnot, perhaps even an obscured wall cloud. According to storm reports 1.75" hail was reported just to our north by about 5 miles near the city of Natoma. While this was happening we ran into a snag when we drove down a very poorly maintained road, which appeared to be some sort of access road to an oil field. It must have been recently graded. It was very flat but the combination of clay with a fresh coat or rain was no match for Peggy's 4 wheel drive Suburban. Most of the 1/2 mile to mile stretch of road we were driving at a 45 degree angle with 2 tires in the shallow ditch. We were able to make it out, but now fallen back behind the cell. We had to make up some time.

We finally made it to the Covert area. Here Chris gave us a call and told us that the National Weather Service had issued a tornado warning for this cell, and it had now slowed to about 20 MPH. Visually we could see the metamorphasis over from Classic Supercell to an LP cell. The skies around the cell seemed to clear out a bit as it begain to steal the energy from nearby cells. We were on the best show in the area. As it evolved from a classic stage into the LP stage it took on a horseshoe shape. It was at this point where Chris gave us a call again and informed us that it showed a real nice classic hook to the storm, around 60 DBZ on radar, and had been the cause for a tornado warning. He also mentioned he thought it was a "right mover".

The cell began to really take on some very defined features. Banding, a very large and beautiful beaver's tail, a perfect, erect updraft tower, mammatus bubbling below the anvil, etc. It was just gorgeous. The updraft tower at times had a nice helical twist or "Barber Pole" to it. The Beaver's tail was so long and pronounced that it looked to be the same length as the updraft was high. The whole storm was very tight and compact with little precipitation below. We could see some hail shafts but that was about it. As we stopped, we could see that the entire supercell was rotating. Occasional lowerings from poorly defined inflow areas or wall clouds peaked our interest from time to time but nothing that I would definatively say was a funnel.

The chase ended near the city of Esbon as the sun set about 7:30. As Peggy observed, the storm went through a constant state of change. It showed us just about everything but a tornado. This was my first LP storm, and well worth it.

Our track

Sounding Data

72451 DDC Dodge City(Awos) Observations at 00Z 10 Oct 2001
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   PRES   HGHT   TEMP   DWPT   RELH   MIXR   DRCT   SKNT   THTA   THTE   THTV
    hPa     m      C      C      %    g/kg    deg   knot     K      K      K
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1000.0    -10
  925.0    674
  913.0    790   26.2   16.2     54  12.85    180     21  307.2  346.3  309.6
  900.1    914   25.0   15.4     55  12.37    180     25  307.3  344.9  309.5
  869.1   1219   22.1   13.4     58  11.27    180     32  307.3  341.6  309.4
  850.0   1412   20.2   12.2     60  10.61    195     31  307.3  339.6  309.2
  809.8   1829   18.1    3.6     38   6.16    215     33  309.4  328.7  310.6
  807.0   1858   18.0    3.0     37   5.92    215     33  309.6  328.1  310.6
  780.9   2134   15.4    2.0     40   5.69    215     37  309.6  327.5  310.7
  753.1   2438   12.5    0.9     45   5.44    220     38  309.7  326.9  310.7
  726.2   2743    9.5   -0.3     50   5.20    225     38  309.8  326.2  310.7
  700.0   3051    6.6   -1.4     57   4.96    225     38  309.8  325.5  310.7
  649.4   3658    1.1   -3.5     71   4.57    235     39  310.2  324.8  311.1
  620.0   4032   -2.3   -4.8     83   4.34    244     35  310.5  324.4  311.3
  604.0   4239   -2.5  -11.5     50   2.64    249     32  312.6  321.3  313.1
  601.9   4267   -2.6  -12.1     48   2.53    250     32  312.8  321.2  313.3
  587.0   4466   -3.3  -16.3     36   1.83    253     31  314.2  320.4  314.6
  579.1   4572   -3.7  -16.9     35   1.76    255     31  314.9  321.0  315.3
  557.1   4877   -4.9  -18.8     33   1.57    255     35  317.1  322.5  317.4
  553.0   4936   -5.1  -19.1     32   1.54    254     35  317.5  322.8  317.8
  500.0   5720   -9.7  -25.7     26   0.95    245     36  321.1  324.6  321.3
  475.6   6096  -12.7  -28.5     25   0.77    245     39  322.1  324.9  322.2
  400.0   7400  -23.1  -38.1     24   0.36    245     41  324.9  326.3  324.9
  387.7   7620  -25.0  -39.6     24   0.32    240     41  325.3  326.6  325.4
  312.4   9144  -37.9  -50.3     26   0.12    240     38  328.1  328.6  328.1
  300.0   9430  -40.3  -52.3     26   0.10    235     38  328.4  328.9  328.5
  299.1   9449  -40.5  -52.4     27   0.10    235     38  328.5  328.9  328.5
  250.0  10650  -50.7  -60.7     30   0.04    245     50  330.6  330.8  330.6
  249.3  10668  -50.8  -60.8     30   0.04    245     50  330.6  330.8  330.6
  237.8  10973  -53.1  -62.3     32   0.04    245     54  331.7  331.8  331.7
  236.0  11021  -53.5  -62.5     32   0.04    244     54  331.8  332.0  331.8
  216.0  11582  -56.0  -65.0     31   0.03    230     49  336.5  336.6  336.5
  201.0  12038  -58.0  -67.0     31   0.02    235     71  340.3  340.4  340.3
  200.0  12070  -58.1  -67.1     31   0.02    235     71  340.6  340.7  340.6
  196.2  12192  -57.8  -66.8     31   0.02    235     71  342.9  343.0  342.9
  165.0  13294  -55.3  -64.3     32   0.04    229     61  364.5  364.7  364.5
  150.0  13900  -58.1  -67.1     31   0.03    225     55  369.8  369.9  369.8
  147.1  14021  -58.5  -67.5     30   0.03    225     55  371.1  371.2  371.1
  133.4  14630  -60.7  -69.7     30   0.02    235     57  377.8  377.9  377.8
  124.0  15086  -62.3  -71.3     29   0.02    239     47  382.8  382.9  382.8
  121.0  15240  -62.0  -71.0     29   0.02    240     44  386.1  386.2  386.1
  115.2  15545  -61.5  -70.5     29   0.02    240     35  392.5  392.7  392.5
  100.0  16420  -59.9  -68.9     30   0.04    230     34  411.7  411.9  411.7
   99.4  16459  -59.9  -68.8     30   0.04    230     33  412.5  412.8  412.6
   94.7  16764  -59.5  -68.5     30   0.04    235     36  419.1  419.3  419.1
   94.7  16761  -59.5  -68.5     30   0.04    235     36  419.0  419.2  419.0
   89.2  17137  -57.1  -66.1     31   0.06    247     30  431.0  431.3  431.0
   85.9  17374  -58.1  -66.9     31   0.05    255     26  433.7  434.0  433.7
   70.0  18650  -63.3  -71.3     33   0.04    240     16  448.6  448.9  448.6
   64.0  19202  -62.5  -70.8     32   0.04    240     17  461.9  462.2  461.9
   50.1  20726  -60.3  -69.3     30   0.07    280     16  500.6  501.1  500.6
   50.0  20740  -60.3  -69.3     30   0.07    280     16  500.9  501.4  501.0
   45.5  21336  -59.2  -68.2     30   0.09    280     18  517.4  518.0  517.4
   43.4  21625  -58.7  -67.7     30   0.10    281     18  525.5  526.2  525.6
   36.5  22726  -52.9  -62.9     29   0.22    286     16  567.1  568.8  567.2
   31.0  23774  -52.7  -62.7     29   0.27    290     14  594.6  596.7  594.6
   30.0  23990  -52.7  -62.7     29   0.28                600.4  602.6  600.5
   29.4  24121  -52.3  -62.3     29   0.30                604.9  607.3  605.0

Station information and sounding indices
                         Station identifier: DDC
                             Station number: 72451
                           Observation time: 011010/0000
                           Station latitude: 37.77
                          Station longitude: -99.97
                          Station elevation: 790.0
                           Station latitude: 37.77
                          Station longitude: -99.97
                          Station elevation: 790.00
                            Showalter index: -2.66
                               Lifted index: -4.21
    LIFT computed using virtual temperature: -4.88
                                SWEAT index: 421.25
                                    K index: 34.10
                         Cross totals index: 21.90
                      Vertical totals index: 29.90
                        Totals totals index: 51.80
      Convective Available Potential Energy: 2172.86
             CAPE using virtual temperature: 2320.87
                      Convective Inhibition: -58.90
             CINS using virtual temperature: -24.71
                           Equilibrum Level: 195.99
 Equilibrum Level using virtual temperature: 195.98
                   Level of Free Convection: 734.65
             LFCT using virtual temperature: 752.93
                     Bulk Richardson Number: 25.77
          Bulk Richardson Number using CAPV: 27.52
  Temp [K] of the Lifted Condensation Level: 285.66
Pres [hPa] of the Lifted Condensation Level: 774.85
     Mean mixed layer potential temperature: 307.27
              Mean mixed layer mixing ratio: 11.93
              1000 hPa to 500 hPa thickness: 5730.00
Precipitable water [mm] for entire sounding: 24.10

72456 TOP Topeka Observations at 00Z 10 Oct 2001
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   PRES   HGHT   TEMP   DWPT   RELH   MIXR   DRCT   SKNT   THTA   THTE   THTV
    hPa     m      C      C      %    g/kg    deg   knot     K      K      K
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1000.0     65
  977.0    270   20.0   17.0     83  12.63    160     20  295.1  331.5  297.3
  973.0    305   19.8   16.8     83  12.53    160     24  295.2  331.4  297.4
  943.0    573   17.8   15.4     86  11.80    173     48  295.9  330.1  298.0
  938.9    610   17.8   15.2     85  11.68    175     51  296.2  330.1  298.3
  925.0    737   17.8   14.4     80  11.27    180     51  297.5  330.4  299.5
  912.0    859   19.2   12.2     64   9.88    180     51  300.1  329.4  301.9
  906.1    914   18.8   11.8     64   9.67    180     51  300.3  329.0  302.0
  874.3   1219   16.4    9.4     63   8.56    185     51  300.9  326.5  302.5
  850.0   1460   14.6    7.6     63   7.76    185     49  301.4  324.7  302.8
  836.0   1600   13.6    7.6     67   7.89    189     45  301.8  325.5  303.2
  813.5   1829   12.8    5.6     62   7.07    195     39  303.3  324.8  304.6
  784.5   2134   11.7    3.0     55   6.09    200     33  305.3  324.1  306.4
  761.0   2389   10.8    0.8     50   5.36    208     33  307.0  323.7  308.0
  756.5   2438   10.3    0.7     51   5.34    210     33  307.0  323.7  308.0
  729.0   2743    7.4   -0.0     59   5.27    215     33  307.1  323.5  308.1
  700.0   3078    4.2   -0.8     70   5.18    210     31  307.1  323.3  308.1
  676.6   3353    1.7   -1.5     79   5.09    210     28  307.3  323.3  308.3
  670.0   3433    1.0   -1.7     82   5.07    213     29  307.4  323.2  308.3
  651.3   3658   -0.5   -3.3     81   4.63    220     31  308.2  322.8  309.0
  603.2   4267   -4.6   -7.6     79   3.59    235     42  310.3  321.8  311.0
  593.0   4403   -5.5   -8.6     79   3.38    235     42  310.8  321.7  311.4
  579.0   4590   -6.5  -17.5     41   1.68    235     41  311.7  317.4  312.0
  560.0   4849   -8.3  -19.3     41   1.49    235     40  312.6  317.7  312.9
  558.0   4877   -8.6  -18.3     45   1.63    235     40  312.6  318.1  312.9
  552.0   4961   -9.3  -15.3     62   2.12    235     40  312.7  319.8  313.1
  546.0   5045   -9.5  -17.5     52   1.78    235     40  313.4  319.4  313.8
  537.0   5173  -10.3  -14.5     71   2.33    235     39  313.9  321.7  314.4
  500.0   5720  -13.3  -19.3     61   1.67    235     38  316.8  322.5  317.1
  485.0   5952  -14.3  -23.3     46   1.21    235     39  318.3  322.6  318.5
  477.0   6078  -15.1  -19.7     68   1.69    235     40  318.8  324.7  319.1
  475.9   6096  -15.1  -21.4     59   1.47    235     40  319.0  324.1  319.3
  472.0   6158  -15.3  -27.3     35   0.87    236     40  319.5  322.7  319.7
  441.0   6668  -19.7  -31.7     34   0.61    240     44  320.2  322.5  320.4
  438.8   6706  -19.9  -32.7     31   0.56    240     44  320.5  322.6  320.6
  411.0   7191  -21.9  -45.9      9   0.15    233     50  323.9  324.5  323.9
  400.0   7390  -23.5  -47.5      9   0.13    230     53  324.4  324.9  324.4
  387.4   7620  -25.3  -49.1      9   0.11    230     53  325.0  325.5  325.0
  339.0   8575  -32.7  -55.7      8   0.06    227     58  327.5  327.8  327.5
  312.2   9144  -38.0  -51.5     23   0.11    225     61  328.0  328.4  328.0
  300.0   9420  -40.5  -49.5     37   0.14    220     66  328.2  328.8  328.2
  278.0   9935  -44.5  -50.5     51   0.13    216     73  329.6  330.2  329.6
  268.0  10180  -46.1  -57.1     28   0.06    214     76  330.8  331.0  330.8
  250.0  10640  -48.7  -62.7     18   0.03    210     82  333.5  333.7  333.5
  248.9  10668  -48.9  -62.6     19   0.03    210     82  333.6  333.7  333.6
  238.0  10960  -51.4  -61.3     30   0.04    215     87  334.2  334.4  334.2
  237.5  10973  -51.5  -61.2     30   0.04    215     87  334.2  334.4  334.2
  230.0  11183  -53.3  -60.3     42   0.05    218     83  334.6  334.8  334.6
  213.0  11672  -57.3  -65.3     35   0.03    225     72  335.8  335.9  335.8
  200.0  12070  -57.9  -66.9     31   0.02    230     72  340.9  341.0  340.9
  171.0  13058  -56.5  -71.5     13   0.01    240     57  358.8  358.9  358.8
  169.7  13106  -56.7  -71.8     13   0.01    240     56  359.3  359.4  359.3
  150.0  13880  -59.9  -76.9      9   0.01    245     54  366.7  366.7  366.7
  139.0  14353  -63.3  -80.3      8   0.00    243     49  368.8  368.8  368.8
  130.0  14767  -60.7  -78.7      8   0.01    242     45  380.6  380.6  380.6
  120.5  15240  -62.1  -80.9      6   0.00    240     40  386.4  386.4  386.4
  119.0  15316  -62.3  -81.3      6   0.00    240     40  387.4  387.4  387.4
  103.9  16154  -62.8  -81.8      6   0.00    245     35  401.8  401.8  401.8
  100.0  16390  -62.9  -81.9      6   0.00    250     33  405.9  406.0  405.9
   98.9  16459  -63.1  -81.9      6   0.00    250     32  406.9  406.9  406.9
   93.8  16783  -63.9  -81.9      7   0.01    250     31  411.4  411.5  411.5
   80.5  17725  -61.5  -78.5      9   0.01    250     27  434.8  434.8  434.8
   79.4  17810  -60.9  -83.9      3   0.00    250     27  437.7  437.7  437.7
   77.2  17983  -61.0  -83.4      4   0.00    250     26  440.9  441.0  440.9
   72.6  18366  -61.3  -82.3      5   0.01                448.2  448.2  448.2

Station information and sounding indices
                         Station identifier: TOP
                             Station number: 72456
                           Observation time: 011010/0000
                           Station latitude: 39.07
                          Station longitude: -95.62
                          Station elevation: 270.0
                           Station latitude: 39.07
                          Station longitude: -95.62
                          Station elevation: 270.00
                            Showalter index: 0.64
                               Lifted index: -2.22
    LIFT computed using virtual temperature: -2.48
                                SWEAT index: 347.93
                                    K index: 30.50
                         Cross totals index: 20.90
                      Vertical totals index: 27.90
                        Totals totals index: 48.80
      Convective Available Potential Energy: 340.94
             CAPE using virtual temperature: 401.24
                      Convective Inhibition: -182.26
             CINS using virtual temperature: -146.12
                           Equilibrum Level: 281.41
 Equilibrum Level using virtual temperature: 280.81
                   Level of Free Convection: 703.55
             LFCT using virtual temperature: 711.85
                     Bulk Richardson Number: 4.78
          Bulk Richardson Number using CAPV: 5.62
  Temp [K] of the Lifted Condensation Level: 288.13
Pres [hPa] of the Lifted Condensation Level: 909.93
     Mean mixed layer potential temperature: 296.03
              Mean mixed layer mixing ratio: 11.92
              1000 hPa to 500 hPa thickness: 5655.00
Precipitable water [mm] for entire sounding: 30.44

72562 LBF North Platte Observations at 00Z 10 Oct 2001
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   PRES   HGHT   TEMP   DWPT   RELH   MIXR   DRCT   SKNT   THTA   THTE   THTV
    hPa     m      C      C      %    g/kg    deg   knot     K      K      K
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1000.0     13
  925.0    678
  906.0    849   16.0   11.0     72   9.18    310     18  297.4  324.4  299.1
  899.1    914   15.4   10.6     73   9.02    310     19  297.4  323.9  299.0
  867.4   1219   12.4    8.9     79   8.34    320     22  297.4  322.0  298.9
  863.0   1263   12.0    8.7     80   8.24    316     21  297.4  321.7  298.9
  850.0   1391   12.4    9.6     83   8.90    305     18  299.1  325.5  300.7
  836.6   1524   12.4    8.8     79   8.59    300     18  300.4  326.0  302.0
  806.8   1829   12.3    7.1     71   7.92    245     17  303.5  327.4  304.9
  791.0   1996   12.2    6.2     67   7.57    234     18  305.1  328.2  306.5
  777.9   2134   11.0    5.3     68   7.22    225     18  305.3  327.4  306.6
  750.0   2438    8.5    3.2     70   6.49    210     18  305.8  325.7  306.9
  728.0   2685    6.4    1.6     71   5.94    222     22  306.1  324.5  307.2
  722.9   2743    6.5   -0.7     60   5.07    225     23  306.8  322.7  307.8
  719.0   2787    6.6   -2.4     53   4.48    225     23  307.4  321.5  308.2
  700.0   3007    5.2   -2.8     56   4.47    225     23  308.2  322.3  309.0
  685.0   3184    4.4   -4.6     52   3.99    225     23  309.2  322.0  310.0
  645.7   3658    0.4   -5.8     63   3.87    225     22  310.0  322.4  310.7
  607.0   4154   -3.7   -7.0     78   3.75    233     25  310.8  322.8  311.5
  598.3   4267   -4.3   -8.5     73   3.38    235     26  311.3  322.3  311.9
  553.4   4877   -7.8  -16.7     49   1.88    225     28  314.3  320.7  314.6
  544.0   5012   -8.5  -18.5     44   1.64    227     29  314.9  320.6  315.2
  500.0   5660  -12.9  -20.9     51   1.45    235     34  317.2  322.3  317.5
  471.9   6096  -16.2  -24.2     50   1.15    240     33  318.4  322.5  318.6
  453.2   6401  -18.6  -26.6     49   0.97    240     33  319.2  322.6  319.4
  449.0   6471  -19.1  -27.1     49   0.93    239     33  319.4  322.7  319.5
  438.0   6655  -19.9  -30.9     37   0.67    236     34  320.6  323.1  320.8
  400.0   7320  -26.1  -38.1     31   0.36    225     38  321.0  322.4  321.1
  383.5   7620  -28.7  -42.1     26   0.25    225     35  321.4  322.4  321.5
  355.0   8172  -33.5  -49.5     18   0.12    225     35  322.2  322.6  322.2
  308.2   9144  -41.9  -53.7     27   0.08    225     34  323.7  324.0  323.7
  300.0   9330  -43.5  -54.5     29   0.08    225     34  323.9  324.3  323.9
  270.0  10029  -49.5  -58.5     34   0.05    219     33  325.1  325.3  325.1
  250.0  10530  -51.3  -62.3     26   0.04    215     32  329.7  329.8  329.7
  244.7  10668  -51.7  -63.0     25   0.03    215     31  331.1  331.3  331.1
  202.3  11887  -55.1  -68.9     16   0.02    220     44  344.2  344.3  344.2
  200.0  11960  -55.3  -69.3     16   0.02    225     42  345.0  345.1  345.0
  192.8  12192  -56.1  -70.4     15   0.01    235     33  347.4  347.5  347.4
  183.7  12497  -57.2  -71.8     14   0.01    215     26  350.5  350.6  350.5
  176.0  12769  -58.1  -73.1     13   0.01    205     29  353.3  353.3  353.3
  175.1  12802  -58.0  -73.2     13   0.01    195     32  353.9  354.0  353.9
  159.0  13411  -56.7  -74.2      9   0.01    215     56  366.0  366.1  366.0
  150.0  13780  -55.9  -74.9      8   0.01    220     51  373.6  373.6  373.6
  125.0  14927  -61.7  -80.7      6   0.00    228     41  383.0  383.1  383.0
  118.9  15240  -59.7  -79.1      6   0.01    230     38  392.2  392.3  392.2
  111.0  15673  -56.9  -76.9      6   0.01    237     38  405.2  405.3  405.2
  105.0  16023  -59.1  -80.1      5   0.01    243     37  407.5  407.6  407.6
  102.8  16154  -59.1  -80.1      5   0.01    245     37  410.0  410.0  410.0
  100.0  16330  -59.1  -80.1      5   0.01    245     36  413.3  413.3  413.3
   98.0  16459  -59.8  -79.9      6   0.01    245     36  414.4  414.4  414.4
   97.6  16482  -59.9  -79.9      6   0.01    245     36  414.6  414.6  414.6
   88.5  17095  -56.9  -77.9      5   0.01    248     28  432.3  432.4  432.4
   80.7  17678  -57.5  -78.9      5   0.01    250     21  442.6  442.7  442.6
   76.8  17983  -57.9  -79.5      5   0.01    235     22  448.1  448.2  448.1
   70.0  18570  -58.5  -80.5      4   0.01    240     22  458.9  458.9  458.9
   63.3  19202  -58.9  -80.9      4   0.01    250     17  471.4  471.4  471.4
   50.0  20680  -59.9  -81.9      4   0.01    210      9  501.9  502.0  501.9
   46.2  21173  -60.7  -81.7      5   0.01    240     13  511.4  511.5  511.4
   45.0  21336  -59.6  -81.0      5   0.01    250     14  517.9  518.0  517.9
   41.1  21910  -55.7  -78.7      4   0.02    260     16  541.3  541.4  541.3
   33.8  23165  -53.8  -78.5      3   0.03    280     20  577.3  577.5  577.3
   32.6  23394  -53.5  -78.5      3   0.03    275     21  584.1  584.4  584.2
   32.0  23513  -53.1  -66.1     19   0.16    273     21  588.3  589.6  588.4
   31.8  23554  -52.9  -75.9      5   0.04    272     21  589.9  590.3  589.9
   30.0  23930  -52.9  -77.9      3   0.03    265     23  599.8  600.1  599.8
   29.3  24079  -52.8  -77.8      3   0.03    265     24  604.1  604.4  604.2
   24.3  25298  -51.7  -76.7      3   0.05    290     15  640.7  641.2  640.7
   21.3  26147  -50.9  -75.9      4   0.06    269     16  667.5  668.1  667.5
   20.1  26518  -47.9  -73.7      3   0.09    260     16  687.7  688.6  687.7
   20.0  26560  -47.5  -73.5      3   0.09    260     18  690.0  690.9  690.0
   18.7  27005  -45.9  -72.9      3   0.11    265     20  708.4  709.5  708.4
   17.5  27432  -46.3  -73.6      3   0.10    270     22  720.3  721.4  720.3
   14.9  28509  -47.3  -75.3      3   0.09    274     28  751.2  752.2  751.3
   12.6  29610  -49.5  -75.5      3   0.11    277     34  780.4  781.6  780.5
   11.1  30480  -46.2  -73.9      3   0.16    280     39  822.2  824.0  822.3
   10.0  31140  -43.7  -72.7      3   0.21    285     40  855.3  857.8  855.4
    9.0  31848  -43.5  -72.5      3   0.24    285     40  882.2  885.2  882.3
    8.8  32004  -41.5  -71.1      3   0.29    285     40  895.9  899.6  896.1
    8.7  32077  -40.5  -70.5      3   0.33                902.4  906.6  902.6

Station information and sounding indices
                         Station identifier: LBF
                             Station number: 72562
                           Observation time: 011010/0000
                           Station latitude: 41.13
                          Station longitude: -100.68
                          Station elevation: 849.0
                           Station latitude: 41.13
                          Station longitude: -100.68
                          Station elevation: 849.00
                            Showalter index: 0.67
                               Lifted index: 1.96
    LIFT computed using virtual temperature: 1.81
                                SWEAT index: 185.32
                                    K index: 26.90
                         Cross totals index: 22.50
                      Vertical totals index: 25.30
                        Totals totals index: 47.80
      Convective Available Potential Energy: 0.00
             CAPE using virtual temperature: 0.00
                      Convective Inhibition: 0.00
             CINS using virtual temperature: 0.00
                     Bulk Richardson Number: 0.00
          Bulk Richardson Number using CAPV: 0.00
  Temp [K] of the Lifted Condensation Level: 281.97
Pres [hPa] of the Lifted Condensation Level: 828.85
     Mean mixed layer potential temperature: 297.51
              Mean mixed layer mixing ratio: 8.67
              1000 hPa to 500 hPa thickness: 5647.00
Precipitable water [mm] for entire sounding: 22.83